All media outlets monitored by MOM have a legal status and belong to a company. Two media outlets are run without a license (Zitouna TV & Zitouna Hidaya) and three outlets have a unclarified status (El Hiwar Ettounsi, Hannibal TV and Nessma TV) . Newspapers and online media do not require a license.
Are there owners who own several media?
A low horizontal concentration exists in the print sector, as most publishing houses edit several newspapers. They usually release a French and an Arabic version, as required by current regulations. In the private TV sector, two channels belong to the same company, which is prohibited by law. Both channels run without a license.In the radio sector, some owners hold - either directly or indirectly - shares in several stations. (See concentration)
Many companies publish an online version of their TV, radio or newspaper content. Most of the online sites analysed were such second-cycle outlets. Besides that phenomenon, the state presents the only actor with a significant cross-media ownership, with two newspapers, four radio stations and two television stations.